Case Series

Unilateral opaque chest radiograph in paediatrics: A case series

Tengku A. Raja Mamat, Khairil A. Sayuti, Chandran Nadarajan, Mohd R. Mohd Zain
South African Journal of Radiology | Vol 25, No 1 | a2164 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v25i1.2164 | © 2021 Tengku Azran Raja Mamat, Khairil Amir Sayuti, Chandran Nadarajan, Mohd Rizal Mohd Zain | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 06 April 2021 | Published: 31 August 2021

About the author(s)

Tengku A. Raja Mamat, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; and, Department of Radiology, Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Keria, Kelantan, Malaysia
Khairil A. Sayuti, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; and, Department of Radiology, Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Keria, Kelantan, Malaysia
Chandran Nadarajan, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; and, Department of Radiology, Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Keria, Kelantan, Malaysia
Mohd R. Mohd Zain, Department of Paediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; and, Department of Paediatrics, Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia


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Abstract

Pulmonary underdevelopment is a rare congenital disease which manifests as persistent hemithorax opacification at chest radiography. We present three patients with different types of pulmonary underdevelopment, their imaging features and associated anomalies. Case 1 is a premature neonate with persistent respiratory distress. Further imaging confirmed right pulmonary hypoplasia, associated with a patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus and vertebral anomalies. Case 2 is a 6-year-old child with corrected anorectal malformation, and recurrent pneumonia. Further imaging confirmed left pulmonary aplasia, associated with an aberrant right subclavian artery and vertebral anomaly. Case 3 is a full term neonate who developed excessive drooling of saliva and respiratory distress. Further imaging confirmed right pulmonary agenesis, associated with an atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Pulmonary underdevelopment is classified into three types: hypoplasia, aplasia and agenesis. The majority of them have associated anomalies. This condition should be considered a differential diagnosis in paediatric patients with an opaque hemithorax on chest radiography.

Keywords

pulmonary underdevelopment; pulmonary agenesis; pulmonary aplasia; pulmonary hypoplasia; congenital disease

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