Original Research

Percutaneous placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters in resource-limited developing countries as an alternative to conventional placement methods

Hendrik R. van den Berg, Suzanne O'Hagan, Delme Hurter
South African Journal of Radiology | Vol 19, No 1 | a707 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v19i1.707 | © 2015 Hendrik R. van den Berg, Suzanne O'Hagan, Delme Hurter | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 August 2014 | Published: 29 April 2015

About the author(s)

Hendrik R. van den Berg, Registrar in Radiology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Suzanne O'Hagan, Medical Officer in Radiology, Kimberley Provincial Hospital, South Africa
Delme Hurter, Department of Radiology, Kimberley Provincial Hospital, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: The percutaneous placement of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters using conscious sedation with ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance is underutilised and has several advantages over the open surgical and laparoscopic placement methods, especially in the resource-limited developing world. Objectives: To describe our patients’ demographics and clinical characteristics, our method of PD catheter placement within the Radiology Department at Kimberley Provincial Hospital, compare our early complication types and frequencies, overall peritonitis rate and one-year catheter survival rate with findings in the international literature and, by demonstrating comparable outcomes, propose that percutaneous placement be considered as a feasible alternative to conventional placement techniques.

Method: We conducted a retrospective study on 25 patients who had their PD catheters inserted between January 2009 and May 2013. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical information as well as type and frequency of early (within 30 days) and late (between 30 days and one-year) complications related to the PD catheter. Early complication types and frequencies were then compared with similar internationally published data. The overall peritonitis rate, in terms of episodes per patient-year, was calculated and compared with international recommendations, and our one-year catheter survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan Meier method and compared with similarly calculated international studies.

Results: The study group comprised 16 male and 9 female patients with a median age of 44 years. Hypertension was the primary cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and was found in 10 (40%) patients. Our early exit site infection rate of 12% was slightly higher than that found in the literature. Literature varies on the overall infection rates; however, our overall peritonitis rate of 0.75 episodes per patient-year was higher than that recommended by the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis. This finding might be attributed to the lower socio-economic grouping of our patients and the small number in the study group. All but two peritonitis cases were successfully treated with antibiotics, and we had no major procedure-related complications. Our early peritonitis rate of 8%, as well as the other early complication types and rates, and our one-year catheter survival rate of 84%, compared favourably with international studies.

Conclusion: Percutaneous PD catheter placement under conscious sedation with the aid of ultrasound and fluoroscopy is a sound alternative to conventional methods in the resourcelimited developing world.


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