Original Research

Diagnostic yield and accuracy of paediatric image-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of deep organ tumours

Tichayedza Bondera, Pawel Schubert, Anel van Zyl, Richard Pitcher, Asif Bagadia
South African Journal of Radiology | Vol 26, No 1 | a2485 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v26i1.2485 | © 2022 Tichayedza Bondera, Pawel Schubert, Anel van Zyl, Richard Pitcher, Asif Bagadia | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 19 May 2022 | Published: 28 September 2022

About the author(s)

Tichayedza Bondera, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
Pawel Schubert, Division of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
Anel van Zyl, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
Richard Pitcher, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
Asif Bagadia, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: Paediatric tumour cytological diagnosis by image-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) has not gained wide acceptance despite increasing publications advocating the procedure.

Objective: The primary aim was an audit of the diagnostic yield and accuracy of paediatric image-guided FNAB with ROSE at a single institution. Evaluation of safety was a secondary aim.

Method: Details of consecutive cases of paediatric image-guided FNAB with ROSE for suspected non-benign deep-seated lesions performed from 01 January 2014 to 30 April 2020 were retrieved from the institutional radiology and laboratory databases. Diagnostic yield and accuracy were evaluated using clinico-pathological-radiological correlation and/or subsequent histological specimen diagnosis correlation. Complications and the frequency of key radiological features potentially affecting yield and accuracy were described.

Results: Of 65 cases retrieved, cytology showed malignancy in 52, benign features in five and one indeterminate diagnosis; seven samples were insufficient for cytological assessment. Of the 65 cases, 58 had subsequent formal histological diagnosis. The overall diagnostic yield was 98.5%, with 94.5% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, 100.0% positive predictive value, 75.0% negative predictive value and 95.3% diagnostic accuracy. All cases (n = 26) demonstrating restricted diffusion on MRI yielded adequate samples and cyto-histopathological correlation.

Conclusion: Paediatric image-guided FNAB with ROSE has a relatively high diagnostic yield, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy in the diagnosis of deep-seated tumours. The relatively low negative predictive value may reflect insufficient samples obtained from cystic and/or benign lesions. Sampling from areas of restricted MRI diffusion may enhance diagnostic yield.


Keywords

paediatric; image-guided fine needle aspiration and biopsy (FNAB); rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE); diagnostic yield; diagnostic accuracy; deep organ tumours

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