Review Article

Standardised ultrasound technique for evaluation of urinary tract infection in South African children highlighting the capabilities and pitfalls of this modality

Savvas Andronikou, Ebrahim Kader, Chris Welman
South African Journal of Radiology | Vol 5, No 2 | a1474 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v5i2.1474 | © 2018 Savvas Andronikou, Ebrahim Kader, Chris Welman | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 16 July 2018 | Published: 31 October 2001

About the author(s)

Savvas Andronikou, Department of Paediatric Radiology, University of Cape Town; and Institute of Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's, South Africa
Ebrahim Kader, Department of Paediatric Radiology, University of Cape Town; and Institute of Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's, South Africa
Chris Welman, Department of Paediatric Radiology, University of Cape Town; and Institute of Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's, South Africa

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Abstract

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest bacterial infections in childhood and has potentially disastrous consequences. The imaging of UTI in children is a controversial subject with divergent imaging protocols existing in the current literature. As ultrasound (US) is a cheap, non-invasive, non-ionizing procedure, it is almost universally accepted as the initial investigation of choice in children with UTI. US reliably demonstrates many important features of the urinary system, including renal size, congenital abnormalities, calculi and, in particular, obstruction to flow of urine (pelvicalyceal dilation). Due to the subjective, user-dependent nature of US, we suggest the adoption of a standardised scanning approach to improve diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility, thereby facilitating patient follow-up. We also hope that standardisation will limit the misinterpretation of US findings that are not evidence-based. This is a pictorial review of the standardised US technique used in the investigation of UTI in children at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital.

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