Review Article

Periosteal reactions in African children

S. Andronikou, C. Welman, E. Kader
South African Journal of Radiology | Vol 4, No 2 | a1525 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v4i2.1525 | © 2018 S. Andronikou, C. Welman, E. Kader | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 31 July 2018 | Published: 30 April 2000

About the author(s)

S. Andronikou, Department of Paediatric Radiology, University of Cape Town; and Institute of Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, South Africa
C. Welman, Department of Paediatric Radiology, University of Cape Town; and Institute of Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, South Africa
E. Kader, Department of Paediatric Radiology, University of Cape Town; and Institute of Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, South Africa

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Abstract

There is a wide differential for periosteal reactions in the paediatric age group. In addition to the common causes for periosteal reactions seen in first world communities, African children present with dramatic radiological images of various nutritional and infective diseases. Those that are encountered in third world communities include congenital syphylis, nutritional rickets, tuberculosis and scurvy. Diagnosis is aided by grouping periosteal reactions according to various conventional film features. These features include anatomical site of involvement, whether the periosteal reactions are unifocal or multifocal, and if multifocal, whether they are bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical. These features must be considered in conjunction with the patient's age and clinical history. This pictorial review demonstrates a range of these conditions and concentrates on those encountered in the African setting while highlighting their differentiating features.

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